Palatines toothless. Gill membranes united to isthmus. It is called a torrentfish for it lives in tumbling white waters usually in large rivers with gravel and boulders and a broad bed. Swim bladder usually absent in adults, except in Phenablennius, Omox, and most Nemophini. Lateral line found along dorsal fin base. Large juveniles and adults with 2 dorsal fins. Distribution: coastal Australia, New Zealand, and Chile. The geographical distribution includes freshwaters of Africa (900 valid species, estimated more than 1300 species), the Jordan Valley in the Middle East (four species), Iran (one species), southern India and Sri Lanka (3 species, also in brackish water), Madagascar (17 valid species, some also in brackish water), Cuba and Hispaniola (4 valid species, some in brackish water), North America and isthmian Central America (95 valid species), and South America (290 valid species ) (Kullander, 1998, updated). Pectoral rays 10-18, unbranched. Branchiostegal rays 5-7. 9701) suggested Arripididae as another spelling. Maximum total length is about 16 cm, most specimens are about 10 - 12.5 cm. The stomach has a left hand exit to the anterior intestine and the first intestinal loop is on the left side (Zihler, 1982) Mechanosensory canals of head well developed, pores with age becoming overgrown: nasal 2, occipital 3-5, interorbital 1-2, postorbital 4-5, suborbital 7-9, preopercular 4, mandibular 3-4. Geographical ranges are commonly limited to a single river or even one or a few streams, reflecting both ecological constraints and drainage basin histories. Three spines in anal fin, soft rays usually 13 or 14. Lateral line extends onto caudal peduncle, reaching posterior margin of fin (except in one species); some species with 3 rows on the tail. Commonly sexually dimorphic. Both the fins and the tail may be affected. Pale brown above and cream-colored below, with or without spots; or uniformly pink or red. Pelagic spawners. 94100). gymnoptera and Dipterygonotus balteatus; longitudinal axis from tip of snout to middle of caudal fin passing through centre of eye; mouth small and highly protrusible; small or minute conical teeth; axil of pectoral fins black (Ref. Mostly nest builders. Kullander (1998) estimated that there are about ten undescribed North-Central American cichlid taxa and about 160 undescribed South American taxa. Scales in lateral line often with three-lobed posterior extensions, except the most anterior scales. Valued as sports fish and used in physiological and ecological experiments. Found in warm and temperate seas from the very shallow waters to depths of at least 900 m; found on sandy or muddy substrates, among weeds and in coral reefs from tide pools and the surf zone (Ref. Cheimarrichthyidae - (Torrentfish) Colorful cichlids are reared as aquarium fish. Chaetobranchopsis, Chaetobranchus and Satanoperca acuticeps are plankton feeders. Elongate pelvic fins, inserted before or behind pectoral fin base; with 1 spine and 5 soft rays 5. Some with the distal portion of the median-fin spines unossified (Ref. Mesopelagic. 4. The northernmost species are Herichthys cyanoguttatus from the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas, USA, on the Atlantic coast, and ‘Cichlasoma beani’, which reaches north to the Río Yaquí on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Some caninelike teeth in mouth. Maximum length 75 cm. ), Lates (9 spp.) One lateral line; snout not produced. 1. 7. Spines in dorsal fin 14-16; soft rays 15-21. Distribution: Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean. 39189). Pelvic fins broad or elongate. 9. Spines in dorsal fin 14-16; soft rays 15-21. Dorsal fin long, continuous or divided; 7-23 spines, 12-36 soft rays. The cichlids are the most species-rich non-Ostariophysan fish family in freshwaters world-wide, and one of the major vertebrate families, with at least 1300 species and with estimates approaching 1900 species (Kullander, 1998). Pelvic fin like an inverted bowl, 3-5 soft rays; pelvics very close to each other. Distribution: North and South America. Adults with pelvic fins. Caudal fin separate or joined to dorsal and anal fins in varying degrees. One short spine on anal fin; soft rays about 26. Apparently spawns in the spring and has a marine larval stage, but the actual spawning site is unknown. Champsodontidae - (Crocodile toothfishes) A few Neotropical cichlids are recorded from brackish water conditions. Suggested new common name for this family in a coming ref. In South America cichlids are recorded from virtually all river drainages, but rarely occupy elevations over 500 m ASL, and generally remain below 200 m ASL. Pelvic fin insertion behind base of pectoral fin. Number of species: 26 (Ref. The stomach has an extendible blind pouch (Zihler, 1982) Detached finlets, as many as nine, sometimes found behind dorsal and anal fins. 95096). Morphology: Continuous dorsal fin with 0-4 spines (often 3). 205), and are attached to the substrate via a filamentous, adhesive pad or pedestal (Ref. Dorsal fins far apart. Because of the varied behavior and often attractive colors and moderate size, cichlids are commonly kept as ornamental fish. 75992). Flat nasal organ devoid of lamellae; lateral line running along base of dorsal fin. Dorsal fin single, continuous or almost separate; spines 14-22; soft rays 19-39. Colored olive brown to dull red, bluish black or purplish with vivid green, blue, yellow, red, orange and white bars and spots or other markings, varying somewhat by population or between the sexes. All these taxa are herein treated as valid for want of any better option. Vomerine teeth present; palatine teeth present in all except Cryptacanthodes aleutensis. Mouthbrooding species are usually biparental, and eggs are guarded on a substrate prior to oral incubation which starts with advanced eggs or newly hatched larvae. Most species with only small cycloid scales. Mouth and stomach very distensible. 94100). Centropomidae - (Snooks) Adults with the lower 4-7 pectoral rays usually thickened, elongated, and free. Scales usually ctenoid; several groups with cycloid scales (absent in Gymnapogon). - a genus change for the other Datnioididae species that have been assigned to Coius but are not Anabantidae. The fish has a heavy body and broad head that is flattened on the ventral surface. Steindachner (1875) worked on the Thayer expedition collection of Amazonian cichlids, but did not add much beyond the work of Heckel. Adults with the lower 4-7 pectoral rays usually thickened, elongated, and free. Subfamilies Owstoniinae and Cepolinae. 2. 50 cm) lutjanoid fishes; eye moderately large, its diameter longer than snout length. 94100). Continuous dorsal fin with 12-43 unbranched soft rays. Dorsal fin with more spines than soft rays; all fin rays simple. The pelvic fins are under the head, anterior to the broad pectoral fins. Symbiosis between a chaenopsid and a stony coral has been reported from the Caribbean. 9. Spines in dorsal fin 10; soft rays usually 18-23. About 40 cm maximum length. Cichlids are distributed in fresh- and brackish waters in Central and South America, Texas (1 species), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, Israel, Iran, Sri Lanka, and coastal southern India. The transversus dorsalis anterior muscle is subdivided into four distinct parts (Liem & Greenwood). Two anteriorly directed processes in swim bladder. Introduced into many areas outside native range. Branchiostegal rays 6. Three spines in anal fin, soft rays usually 13 or 14. Mucous cells within epidermis are found in both the non-sexually mature and sexually mature adult stages. Slightly bulging eyes. Bussing (1998: 293-384) summarizes data on 24 Costa Rican cichlid species; Keith et al. Anal spines usually 3, the first 2 separate from the rest; soft rays usually 15-31. The traditionally most important aquarium species are Pterophyllum and Symphysodon species, the former often representing the aquarium hobby in logotypes. Distribution: Antarctic. Family Cheimarrhichthyidae is a monotypic family consisting of Cheimarrichthys fosteri which is found in fast-flowing rivers thoughout coastal New Zealand. Ventral margins of the opercles overlapping below the isthmus, fimbriae on the ventral margins of the interopercles; presence of bony fimbriae extending from the ventral margin of the interopercle and posterodorsal margin of the opercle; lateral line strongly arched anteriad and approaching the dorsal midline (Ref. Bathymasteridae - (Ronquils) Maximum length about 1.4 m. Snout fleshy and jutting beyond lower jaw. A few species largely scaleless, except for lateral line scales which is always present. Two separate dorsal fins, first short with 7-8 flexible spines, second long with 18 to 29 segmented rays; anal fin long with 1 spine, 17-29 segmented rays; 33-48 vertebrae (Ref. Anal spines usually 3, the first 2 separate from the rest; soft rays usually 15-31. Pseudobranch small and hidden. Small pectoral fins with an oblique base. Günther (1868, based on several shorter papers) described and illustrated a large part of the Central American cichlid fauna, followed by Regan (1906-1908). Mouth protrusible. Pelvic fins broad or elongate. Typically diurnal. Colorful. Distribution: southern Australia. 6a) Spiny dorsal consists of separated spines. Branchiostegal rays 5-7. Dichistiidae - (Galjoen fishes) Three short spines in anal fin; soft rays 13-16. This implies: There are four permanent cichlid species occurring on the island of Trinidad, but no cichlids are found on any other islands close to the Venezuelan coast. Scientific general reviews of the family are provided by Keenleyside (1991) and Barlow (2000). Palatines toothless. Much of Pellegrin’s efforts with the Neotropical taxa were improved upon by Regan’s series of generic revisions in the next two years (Regan, 1905-1906), which remained the platform for all Neotropical cichlid systematics until the 1980s. Mouth nonprotrusible. Breeding activities highly organized. Axillary scale at base of pelvics. Distinguished in having a relatively long palatine compared to the length of the vomer; rather than proximal, the post-temporal ventral arm is free from the neurocranium; the posterior portion of the lateral line lacking embedded, tubed scales; long upper jaw in both sexes, surpassing the posterior margin of the orbit; the insertion of the hyomandibula on the neurocranium is shifted posteriorly away from the orbit; the sphenotic bearing a small lateral spine; dorsal arm of the scapula reduced and free from the cleithrum (except Mccoskerichthys and at least one species of Neoclinus); unbranched caudal-fin rays (Ref. Some of these taxa are certainly distinct species, but the status of highly localized subspecies from the Yucatán peninsula, which are based on one or very few specimens, remains a subject for revision. Eyes dorsally placed and somewhat protrusible; with or without eye stalk. Distinguished in having a relatively long palatine compared to the length of the vomer; rather than proximal, the post-temporal ventral arm is free from the neurocranium; the posterior portion of the lateral line lacking embedded, tubed scales; long upper jaw in both sexes, surpassing the posterior margin of the orbit; the insertion of the hyomandibula on the neurocranium is shifted posteriorly away from the orbit; the sphenotic bearing a small lateral spine; dorsal arm of the scapula reduced and free from the cleithrum (except Mccoskerichthys and at least one species of Neoclinus); unbranched caudal-fin rays (Ref. Males are mouthbrooders. The family Cichlidae was first monographed by Heckel (1840), based on the Natterer collection from Brazil (illustrations in Riedl-Dorn, 2000). Suggested new common name for this family in a coming ref. Eggs completely surrounded by a sheath of fibers without actually being attached to these, micropylar region without ridges or circular areas of carpetlike fibers. Most with bright coloration, a dark band across the eye and an 'eyespot' dorsally. Spines in dorsal fin 14-16; soft rays 15-21. Pelvic fin jugular, with 1 spine and 3 soft rays. Mouth strongly oblique. Vertebrae 24 (11+13). Distribution: tropical Africa (three species) and southern Asia. Distribution: from India to Borneo in fresh and brackish waters. The insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit. vomer head (Neocaristius); lateral line is not seen; Colorful cichlids are reared as aquarium fish. Hypurals fused into one plate. Dorsal spines 3-17, flexible; 9-119 segmented soft rays. 7463). Cirrhitidae - (Hawkfishes) Lateral line present. About 80 cm maximum length, in Boulengerochromis microlepis. Such rivers are unstable, their beds shift during floods. Many species variable in color, often matching their background. Dactyloscopidae - (Sand stargazers) Swim bladder absent. Pelagic eggs Deeply forked caudal fin. 36343). Most taxa are in the interval 10-20 cm, however. Includes Coius that has been put in synonymy with Anabas, Coius cobojius being an Anabantidae (Kottelat, 2000; CAS_Ref_No 25865). Dorsal fin single, continuous or almost separate; spines 14-22; soft rays 19-39. Subfamilies: Infraorbital ossicle next to lachrymal (infraorbital 2) lost. Distribution: marine habitats in southern Australia, New Zealand, and southern South America. Gill rakers very short, less than 15 in number. Among Neotropical fishes they can be recognized externally by the possession of 7-24 (usually 13-16) spines in the dorsal fin, 2-12 (usually 3, rarely more than 5) anal-fin spines; and a single nostril on each side of the head. Small pectoral fins with an oblique base. Mouthbrooding species are usually biparental, and eggs are guarded on a substrate prior to oral incubation which starts with advanced eggs or newly hatched larvae. Body elongate. Rounded caudal fin. Slightly bulging eyes. The mouth is small and non protractile, the snout overhangs the lower jaw. Günther (1868, based on several shorter papers) described and illustrated a large part of the Central American cichlid fauna, followed by Regan (1906-1908). Gill membranes broadly connected to the isthmus, gill openings not continued far forward. Pelvic fins absent, pelvic girdle present. Therefore, Coius has been put in synonymy with Anabas and genus and species included in Anabantidae (Kottelat, 2000; CAS_Ref_No 25865). Most with bright coloration, a dark band across the eye and an 'eyespot' dorsally. The presence of characteristically shaped and distributed micro-branchiospines on the gill arches (Stiassny, 1981); Premaxilla with the front tip dorsally expanded and diverging to the sides. Maximum length about 25 cm (relatively small, 2-35 cm TL, Ref. Ventral margins of the opercles overlapping below the isthmus, fimbriae on the ventral margins of the interopercles; presence of bony fimbriae extending from the ventral margin of the interopercle and posterodorsal margin of the opercle; lateral line strongly arched anteriad and approaching the dorsal midline (Ref. Vertebrae 30-34. Bussing (1998: 293-384) summarizes data on 24 Costa Rican cichlid species; Keith et al. Distribution: China, southern Japan, and Korea. The single dorsal fin originates on the head and extends over nearly the full length of the body. The geographical distribution includes freshwaters of Africa (900 valid species, estimated more than 1300 species), the Jordan Valley in the Middle East (four species), Iran (one species), southern India and Sri Lanka (3 species, also in brackish water), Madagascar (17 valid species, some also in brackish water), Cuba and Hispaniola (4 valid species, some in brackish water), North America and isthmian Central America (95 valid species), and South America (290 valid species ) (Kullander, 1998, updated). Clinidae - (Clinids) Vertebrae 71-88. The transversus dorsalis anterior muscle is subdivided into four distinct parts (Liem & Greenwood). Caudal fin separate or joined to dorsal and anal fins in varying degrees. Premaxilla with the front tip dorsally expanded and diverging to the sides. Dinolestidae - (Long-finned pike) 7463). following Ref. Separate gill membranes. Vertebrae 24 or 25 (10 + 14 or 15). Body covered with small ctenoid scales; spines in dorsal fin 7-9; anal fin spines 2-3; a single spine in pelvic fin; soft rays 5. Vertebrae 24-27 (modally 24). Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. The pelvic fins are under the head, anterior to the broad pectoral fins. Creediidae - (Sandburrowers) Deep and strongly compressed body. Gill membranes broadly connected to the isthmus, gill openings not continued far forward. Scales absent, except small cycloid scales present in Cryptacanthodes giganteus. Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans; oceanic. Common names: Veilfins Elongate pelvic fins before pectorals. Distribution: tropical Africa (three species) and southern Asia. Important in aquaculture and commonly used in rice-fish farming. This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 09:39. Caudal fin separate or joined to dorsal and anal fins in varying degrees. Anal fin 21-41 soft rays. Description: Oblong to fusiform, moderately compressed, medium-sized to small (to about Breeding activities highly organized. Cichlidae - (Cichlids) Continuous dorsal fin with 10 spines, 11-17 soft rays; interspinal membranes with cirri. Trophic ecology: Fusiliers are closely related to snappers (Lutjanidae) but possess several adaptations for a planktivorous mode of life, such as the elongate fusiform body, the small mouth, and the deeply forked caudal fin. No cirri on nape, may be present elsewhere on head. No spines; soft rays 48-65. Paracaristiinae ((Paracaristius, Neocaristius): small mouth, end of maxillary bone hardly extends beyond vertical through middle of eye; upper jaw totally covered by suborbitalia; wide suborbital region (width 9.5-14.5% SL); One short spine on anal fin; soft rays about 26. Morphology: Body oblong to fusiform; D X-XV,8-22 with slender weak spines; A III,9-13; pelvic fins I,5; pectoral fins 16-24; caudal fin distinctly forked with pointed lobes; scale rows on body running horizontally; dorsal and anal fins with scales except for Gymnocaesio In South America cichlids are recorded from virtually all river drainages, but rarely occupy elevations over 500 m ASL, and generally remain below 200 m ASL. 9. Pectoral skeleton with 3 radials. Vertebrae 24-27 (modally 24). Cichla, large Crenicichla species, Petenia, Parachromis, Caquetaia, Astronotus, and Acaronia, feed on fishes and large invertebrates. Chin barbel present; opercle woth hook-shaped spine; four or five hypurals; vertebrae 33-41. Scaleless body (lateral line scales modified in few species). During the day they occur in large zooplankton feeding schools in mid-water over the reef, along steep outer reef slopes and around deep lagoon pinnacles. Species usually small and very colorful; inhabits rocks and corals. A cordlike ligament stretches from ceratohyal to dentary symphasis. 7463. Another source of frustration concerns the generic assignment of Central American taxa, and a few South American taxa, which were excluded from the catch-all genus Cichlasoma by Kullander (1983). Clinidae - (Clinids) Subocular shelf absent. Elongate pelvic fins, inserted before or behind pectoral fin base; with 1 spine and 5 soft rays 5. The check-list herein recognizes 403 valid Neotropical cichlid species out of XXX nominal taxa. The lateral line is usually divided into one anterior upper portion ending below the end of the dorsal-fin base, and a posterior lower portion running along the middle of the caudal peduncle. Opercular bone very much splintered or fimbriated. 95096). Continuous dorsal fin, either with 0-5 feeble spines graduating to soft rays or 5-9 stout and much shorter spines not graduating to soft rays. All with basisphenoid except in Nemophini. Pelvic fin jugular, with 1 spine and 3 soft rays. 58418. Widely forked caudal fin. Scales in lateral lines may be over 100, usually 20-50. Sexes differ in color and the female is smaller than the male and assumes all or most of the care for the eggs and young. Interrupted lateral line in most species. Feeds on aquatic insects. Slender fishes with compressed head and body. Found in warm and temperate seas from the very shallow waters to depths of at least 900 m; found on sandy or muddy substrates, among weeds and in coral reefs from tide pools and the surf zone (Ref. Male anguillids invest more energy into mating with as many females as he can, than they do into growth. Some species widely introduced. Cichlids are recognized by several unambiguous anatomical synapomorphies. Distribution: Antarctic and southern South America. Eggs are demersal and adhesive (Ref. Caudal fin with 15 branched rays, rounded to emarginate. originates on the subocular shelf; supraneural configuration 0/0/0+2/1+1/, /0+0/0+2/1+1/, or /0+0/2/1+1/; epineurals 10-15; procurrent caudal-fin rays typically 7-10; hypurals 1-2 and 3-4 typically fused in all species (except some juveniles); openings in external wall of pars jugularis 2 to 5; colour of sides with or without longitudinal stripes, the caudal fin either without markings, with a blackish blotch on tips of lobes, or with a longitudinal blackish streak in middle of each lobe (Ref. Cephalic mechanosensory canals not opening to the outside. Attain total lengths of 31-127 cm. Valued as sports fish and used in physiological and ecological experiments. Vertebrae 72-89 to 251. Vertebrae 26-28. Long anal fin, with one spine and 17-20 soft rays. Premaxilla with the front tip dorsally expanded and diverging to the sides. Live specimens with exceedingly beautiful colors. Slender fishes with compressed head and body. Hide in holes at night (Ref. Callionymidae - (Dragonets) 76788). A knob projecting backward at the articulation of lower jaw. Feeds on crustaceans and other invertebrates. Pseudoscopelus with photophores and sometimes placed in its own family. Mouth nonprotrusible. Anal fin rays 15-41, usually 3 of which are spines. Parasphenoid absent. To about 50 cm maximum length. 27959). Branchiostegal rays 6. Live specimens with exceedingly beautiful colors. Dorsal and anal fin bases long. Dorsal fin with more spines than soft rays; all fin rays simple. Introduced into many areas outside native range. Spines in anal fin 3-15 (generally 3); soft rays 4-15 (a few with 30). No spines in fins. Tribes: Apogonichthyini Snodgrass & Heller 1905, Apogonini Günther 1859, Archamiini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014, Cheilodipterini Bleeker 1856, Glossamiini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014, Gymnapogonini Whitley 1941, Lepidamiini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014, Ostorhinchini Whitley 1959, Pristiapogonini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014, Rhabdamiini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014, Siphamiini Smith 1955, Sphaeramiini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014, Veruluxini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014, Zoramiini Fraser & Mabuchi 2014 (Ref. 4. Branchiostegal rays 6. About 1 m maximum length. 75992). Scales in lateral lines may be over 100, usually 20-50. No cirri on nape, may be present elsewhere on head. Parasphenoid absent. Freshwater habitats in southeastern Australia and Tasmania. Important food fishes. Dorsal fin bipartite (either deeply notched or with a distinct gap); with 7 or 8 spines on the first part; 1 spine and 8-11 soft rays on the second. Adapt well to aquarium conditions. The subterminal mouth is very effective for grazing invertebrates from rock surfaces. 9850). Some of these taxa are certainly distinct species, but the status of highly localized subspecies from the Yucatán peninsula, which are based on one or very few specimens, remains a subject for revision. Spines in dorsal fin 14-16; soft rays 15-21. Morphology: Continuous dorsal fin with 0-4 spines (often 3). Maxillary process on dentigerous process of premaxilla absent. Continuous dorsal fin with 10 spines, 11-17 soft rays; interspinal membranes with cirri. Body elongate. Eyes dorsally placed and somewhat protrusible; with or without eye stalk. Distribution: Mainly Indo-West Pacific. Pelagic spawners. Scales usually ctenoid; several groups with cycloid scales (absent in Gymnapogon). Morphology: Body oblong to fusiform; D X-XV,8-22 with slender weak spines; A III,9-13; pelvic fins I,5; pectoral fins 16-24; caudal fin distinctly forked with pointed lobes; scale rows on body running horizontally; dorsal and anal fins with scales except for Gymnocaesio Only one marine species (rarely brackish) bearing a superficial resemblance to cirrhitids. The sagitta features an anterocaudal pseudocolliculum having a long and thick ventral part which is separated from the crista inferior by a long, deep and sharp furrow (Gaemers, 1985). Three spines in anal fin, soft rays usually 13 or 14. Branchiostegal rays 7. Scales in lateral lines may be over 100, usually 20-50. All with basisphenoid except in Nemophini. The traditionally most important aquarium species are Pterophyllum and Symphysodon species, the former often representing the aquarium hobby in logotypes. Gill membranes separate, free of the isthmus; except in Rathbunella broadly joined and forming a free fold across the isthmus. Distribution: southern Australia. Family content changed since Ref. Caudal fin rounded, truncate or forked. 7463. The single dorsal fin originates on the head and extends over nearly the full length of the body. Distribution: Antarctic and southern South America. Conical or villiform jaw teeth. Description: Oblong to fusiform, moderately compressed, medium-sized to small (to about The stomach has a left hand exit to the anterior intestine and the first intestinal loop is on the left side (Zihler, 1982) Nape without cirri. Pelvic fins broad or elongate. One of the most important families of tropical marine fishes; fished commercially and for recreation. Dactyloscopidae - (Sand stargazers) Cephalic mechanosensory canals not opening to the outside. Breeding activities highly organized. Pelvic fins lacking in Parona signata. The presence of an expanded head of each fourth epibranchial bone (Stiassny, 1981); Branchiostegal 7 rays. Dorsal and anal fins with scales. Sensory pores on top of head and cheeks usually distinct. Scales covering head (including maxilla, snout, and occiput). Gill membranes fused. Cichlids are absent from the Río Marañón above the Pongo de Manseriche and from the Río Ucayali drainage upstream of Atalaya (the mouth of the Río Urubamba [Río Vilcanota] and Río Tombo [Río Apurimac]). No cirri on nape, may be present elsewhere on head. Scales usually inconspicuous; cycloid, having radii in all fields. Rarely brackish. Maximum total length is about 16 cm, most specimens are about 10 - 12.5 cm. Cichlids are recognized by several unambiguous anatomical synapomorphies. Dorsal fin long, continuous or divided; 7-23 spines, 12-36 soft rays. Body generally compressed, although body shape extremely variable from very deep to fusiform. Maxilla hidden from external view. Anal fin 21-41 soft rays. Family needs more work. Chiefly marine; rarely brackish. Distribution: North and South America. The single dorsal fin originates on the head and extends over nearly the full length of the body. Cichlids are absent from the Río Marañón above the Pongo de Manseriche and from the Río Ucayali drainage upstream of Atalaya (the mouth of the Río Urubamba [Río Vilcanota] and Río Tombo [Río Apurimac]). Maximum length about 55 cm. CLOFFSCA: Scales usually inconspicuous; cycloid, having radii in all fields. Slightly bulging eyes. Colorful cichlids are reared as aquarium fish. (1999) have provided phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphology and molecular data respectively. (= former Coracinidae) Dactyloscopidae - (Sand stargazers) Most species have strong canines and molars for digging out and crushing clams and other hard-shelled prey. Distribution: North and South America. palatine and vomer teeth lacking or present only on 96888). Primarily demersal, inhabiting shallow to moderately deep cold waters. Vertebrae 27 (10 + 17). Preopercle and infraorbitals with smooth margins. Gut coiled several times. Head rough, often with spines. Anterior dorsal fin with 3-9 spines; the second having 1 spine and usually 18-37 soft rays. Channidae - (Snakeheads) Distribution: Indo-West Pacific from South Africa to Hawaii and Easter I. Paracaristiinae ((Paracaristius, Neocaristius): small mouth, end of maxillary bone hardly extends beyond vertical through middle of eye; upper jaw totally covered by suborbitalia; wide suborbital region (width 9.5-14.5% SL); Slender fishes with compressed head and body. Distribution: Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Ocean. Small pectoral fins with an oblique base. 75992). One pair of nostrils. Dorsal fin with 3 or 4 short, isolated spines preceeding the long, low soft dorsal fin. Owstoniines are less elongate, only 27-33 vertebrae and 19-26 dorsal-fin soft rays, with dorsal and anal fins not membraneously attached to the caudal fin (Ref.

freshwater fish with long dorsal fin

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