As soon as you see the flower buds coming out, shift the plant to bright lighting, and resume regular watering. Then wait for the soil to dry out completely before applying the next irrigation. Curling leaves on a Kalanchoe plant is usually a sign that your plant is in distress. If the weather becomes too cold, you can simply move the succulents indoors.eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'kalanchoe_succulent_com-leader-3','ezslot_7',112,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'kalanchoe_succulent_com-leader-3','ezslot_8',112,'0','1'])); Kalanchoe laxiflora is a drought-tolerant succulent and it can tolerate a period of neglect. Coffee grounds may even suppress pests and weeds.eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'kalanchoe_succulent_com-mobile-leaderboard-1','ezslot_16',117,'0','0'])); Eggshells can be used in succulent gardens. How to Get a Kalanchoe to Bloom. Beauverd's Widow's Thrill (Kalanchoe beauverdii) Posted by purpleinopp ... Today's site banner is by bootandall and is called "Xanthoria parietina" The clayey soil will not have enough porosity to let the excess water drain out and it will ultimately lead to water build up in the potting soil, causing root rot and decay.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'kalanchoe_succulent_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_9',110,'0','0'])); Should I put rocks at the bottom of the containers? Grows from cuttings and is a climbing / twining / hanging plant Fertilize during the growing season. Therefore, you don’t need a large pot for them, and you can place them nearly anywhere, where light conditions are ideal for this plant. The temperature should not fall below 55 degrees Fahrenheit. In this video you will see a time lapse of Kalanchoe Flowers Blooming. If the temperature drops below freezing it will cause frost injury and death in no time.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'kalanchoe_succulent_com-leader-1','ezslot_5',111,'0','0'])); How to save the succulents from frost injury? During the winter season keep your succulents near a south-facing window, while in summer season move them near east or west-facing windows. Water well. Generally, the humidity at room temperature is fine for the growth of Kalanchoe laxiflora. Other common names the Calandiva plant goes by include; the Florist Kalanchoe, Flaming Katy, Madagascar Widow’s-thrill, or the Christmas Kalanchoe. The pets will start developing several symptoms after ingestion such as diarrhea, vomiting, change in heart rate and rhythm, stomach upset or pain, and excessive slobbering. Cover the pot with a transparent plastic which will conserve moisture and create a greenhouse effect, allowing the plant to root in 14 to 21 days. (widow’s-thrill) Species: Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) It is not necessary to put the rocks at the bottom of the containers. Coarse sand and perlite improve the drainage and aeration of the potting medium by increasing the soil porosity. Do this for 4-6 weeks until you notice flower buds forming. Putting rocks in the containers does not improve drainage or air circulation. The only thing that varies with the humidity is their watering needs. A different proportion of light and darkness must be achieved during this period. Is it the cure for cancer? Fill the containers (in which you wish to propagate the succulents) with a standard succulent mix. I keep my kalanchoe plant in a clay pot with drainage holes on the bottom, but plastic pots will do fine as well. The Plants Database includes the following 11 species of Kalanchoe . Also called Flaming Katy Plant - Buy plants online at best prices- Low maintenance plant - Best for homes and offices - Delivered safely - Safe Packaging. Generally, a single rock to cover the drainage hole is sufficient to prevent the soil from leaching out of the bottom. How to water Kalanchoe succulents in the pots without drainage holes? If the humidity is very high, the succulents need less water, while at low humidity they may need water more often. The leaves feature fang-like protuberances on the underside. Put the pots near a window with indirect sunlight. For this reason, this plant is also called ‘Mother of Millions’. The plant produces colorful, long-lasting flowers. The kalanchoe herbal juice is available in the market in the form of capsules, but you can also cook at home. Newly planted Kalanchoes should be watered to keep the soil moist until they become established. Kalanchoe blossfeldiana is a long-flowering perennial succulent that requires warm temperatures, from 60 … Kalanchoe beauverdii (Beauverd's Widow's-thrill) - A climber with branching gray wiry stems that clamber and twine and hold narrow 1 to 2 inch long lance-shaped dark purple-black succulent leaves that are held in widely spaced opposite pairs alternating 90 degrees from the last pair. Synonyms. You can place a box over the plant to deprive it of light for a 14-hour period, daily for around 6 weeks or until flower buds appear. Kalanchoe pinnata (Cathedral Bells) Care Guide, Kalanchoe hildebrandtii (Silver Teaspoons) Care Guide, Kalanchoe bracteata (Silver Teaspoons) Care and Propagation, Kalanchoe Rosei – Planting, Growing, and Care, Kalanchoe sexangularis – Six angled Kalanchoe, Kalanchoe laxiflora (Milky Widow’s Thrill) Care, »  Kalanchoe laxiflora (Milky Widow’s Thrill) Care. Banana peels are good for Kalanchoe succulents. ... Be the first to review “Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Widow’s-thrill, Flaming Katy Plant(yellow)” Cancel reply. Kalanchoe blossfeldiana is the most common variety of kalanchoe, also known by the English common names Flaming Katy, Christmas Kalanchoe, Florist Kalanchoe and Madagascar widow’s-thrill, but there are many varieties to choose from, including pendant (hanging) varieties and nonflowering varieties grown for their unique foliage. You will most likely see the pot labeled as " Kalanchoe blossfeldiana ". Eggshells will also give them an extra dose of potassium. - widow's-thrill KALAN ©Richard A. Howard. Bigger varieties are also available but for the most part, Kalanchoe varieties available in the flower trade stay small. Pers. During the winter season, the succulents need occasional watering, therefore, irrigate only if the plants start shriveling. If you're looking to grow a succulent with a little extra beauty, look no further than the Kalanchoe plant. Yes, you can keep Kalanchoe laxiflora on the Terrace or Balcony. Soil: Kalanchoe plants do best in a well-draining potting mix designed for cacti and succulents, or stir in plenty of perlite or sand to improve drainage. This #Kalanchoe beauverdii (Beauverd's Widow's-thrill) has really grown. This method only works for propagating new Kalanchoe succulents. The temperature range considered ideal for Kalanchoe plants is between 65 F and 85 F degrees. Make sure you don’t injure any other part of the succulent. Snails and slugs can be removed physically or by treating with a contact pesticide. Avoid watering your Kalanchoe succulents at noon or in the afternoon. Avoid exposure to bright direct sunlight until the succulents are established in the soil. Avoid direct contact with the windows during the summer season, when the sun is too intense it may cause the burning or scorching of the leaves. Checking the soil for dryness every time before watering can help you to avoid inadvertently overwater the plants. This dwarf succulent shrub is an ideal choice … The most common watering mistake is that you water your Kalanchoe succulents by spraying water on the leaves. 2016). There are hundreds of plants in this genus, but not all are available in cultivation. Some studies have revealed its connection to alternate cancer treatments. A fast grower, but not too invasive. Native to Madagascar, this plant is recognizable for its velvety, large and fleshy leaves. Though humidity does not impact the overall plant growth directly, however, high humidity can likely encourage the fungal growth on the succulents. #kalanchoe-beauverdii #collage #beauverdia #widowsthrill #southerncalifornia #california … Cotyledon pinnata Lam. Don’t do that. You can use the eggshell tea to give an added dose of calcium to the Kalanchoe succulents. Your email address will not be published. This perennial falls under the genus Kalanchoe, and its full scientific name is Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana. Coffee grounds will also help to improve soil aeration and drainage. To take the cuttings use a clean sharp scissor or gardening shears. However, the plant’s leaves are far more interesting than its flowers and it’s mostly grown for its peculiar leaves. Fertilizing is not crucial, but it can benefit the plant and aid in blooming. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Immediately move your succulents near a bright sunny window.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'kalanchoe_succulent_com-banner-1','ezslot_3',109,'0','0'])); Kalanchoe laxiflora requires well-draining potting soil. Constituents of Kalanchoe Pinnata. Here’s what you need to know about these plants to help them thrive in your home: Knowing the size Kalanchoe plants reach at maturity will help you pick an ideal location for them in your home as well as a suitable pot. Does Kalanchoe laxiflora need to be fertilized? This is for the treatment of mucosal rhinitis. Make sure you keep the covered pot in a warm location out of direct sunlight. If your Kalanchoe plant is looking leggy and thin, it probably isn’t getting enough light. Bear in mind that the growing requirements may vary from species to species, so make sure to check the requirements of your chosen variety. If the infestation is very severe, you can use a non-toxic insecticide spray. Kalanchoe laxiflora can be planted in both outdoor and indoor gardens depending upon the weather condition. Also do not water your succulents when the weather is too humid or extremely hot. Yes, Kalanchoe laxiflora can be propagated by using seeds. Ingestion of the plant can cause vomiting and diarrhea. Synonym:Bryophyllum crenatum, Bryophyllum laxiflorum, Kalanchoe crenata, Kalanchoe tieghemii.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'kalanchoe_succulent_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_14',104,'0','0'])); Kalanchoe laxiflora is native to Madagascar (an island country lying off of the southeastern coast of Africa). Which containers are recommended to grow Kalanchoe laxiflora? It has also been spotted sprouting in some parts of Asia and Brazil. These are not finicky plants and you can easily get the hang of tending to them. Gently cut the plant part you want to propagate. You can use a special cactus soil mix or a succulent soil mix readily available in the market or you can prepare a potting mix at your own by mixing 40 to 50% grit (perlite and sand) with peat moss. It looks absolutely amazing in succulent gardens and rock gardens. Kalanchoe plants are succulents native to dry areas, making the plant resistant to drought. Water well and let it drain out of the drainage holes. black spots appearing on leaves), or exposure to low temperatures. It is recommended to use 70 % isopropyl alcohol or neem oil spray to get rid of these tiny bugs. This succulent has beautiful leaves that are reddish along the margins. As a beginner gardener or a novice to Kalanchoe plants, you may have a lot of questions about this plant. Just take a clean scissor and snip off the spent blooms and dead leaves gently. Kalanchoe (Widow’s-thrill) Kalanchoe plants are popular for their interestingly shaped leaves and beautiful blooms. In areas where the summer season is extremely hot, and the sunlight is too intense they should be planted in partial shade. Required fields are marked *. The sculpted foliage persists after bloom and provides for a handsome plant. Light is one of the most critical requirements to ensure the normal and healthy growth of Kalanchoe laxiflora. To do this, grind fresh crushed leaves of the plant, squeeze and filter to extract juice extract and serve as tea. How to make Kalanchoe laxiflora bloom again? Sunny windowsills and the brightest rooms of your home should be prime locations for these plants. Essentially, with this technique, you can force the plant to bloom at a specific time. The “flaming Katy” name comes from the vivid flowers. It is recommended to use terracotta pots or glazed ceramics because they have good drainage capacity and provide exceptional results. An interesting #climbing #succulent. But do not overwater it will rot the cuttings in no time. The Widow’s-thrill, as the Kalanchoe is often called, belongs to the short-day plants and only develops flower buds if you observe the following steps: The buds are formed after a period of rest. If you are using pots without drainage holes, it is recommended to water your succulents sparingly. Place the cuttings at the top of the pre-moistened potting soil (a mix of sand, perlite, and peat moss). Like all other Kalanchoe succulents, Kalanchoe laxiflora prefers to grow under bright sunny locations. : Common Name: WIDOW'S THRILL: Genus Notes: Various data indicate it is appropriate to consider Bryophyllum as a synonym of Kalanchoe (Gehrig et al. Come winter, instant bouquets of flowers in orange, yellow, pink, purple, and white appear in the middle of the basal leaves. Insert your finger in the soil if the top 1 to 2 inches feel dry, it is the right time to water. Kalanchoe plants grow to 6-12 inches tall and to about 6 inches wide. Watering this plant is also a problem area, especially if you’re not accustomed to the watering needs of succulents. Its flowers are red orange to bright red and leaves also turn reddish if the plant is kept in bright sun. It’s also called Madagascar widow’s-thrill or florist’s kalanchoe. It can be planted outdoors in containers during the summer season and as an indoor succulent during the winter season (when the temperature drops below freezing). Kalanchoe poisoning is a serious condition that can be fatal if not treated right away. How to Care for a Kalanchoe Blossfeldiana Plant. A Large Image of Kalanchoe (widow's-thrill) from the USDA PLANTS database : Name Search: name search type enter a search name State Search ... Kalanchoe Adans. Generally, all Kalanchoe succulents are toxic to pet animals, birds, and livestock. Avoid using spray bottles. After a few minutes tip the container sideways and let the excess water drain out. Kalanchoe plants are popular for their interestingly shaped leaves and beautiful blooms. It can thrive well in the same container for years. PlantIndex.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. The plant is suitable for hanging baskets. The starry flowers are long lasting and bloom in winter to spring. Kalanchoe laxiflora can be planted together with other Kalanchoe succulents, and some other succulents like Aloe, Aeonium, and Graptopetalum. Always make sure you choose the right sized pot to grow your Kalanchoe succulents. The succulent is highly rewarding for its, Kalanchoe hildebrandtii is an amazing succulent that can be quite beautiful if well taken care of. Frost protection is crucial since the plant does not tolerate the cold. It will add beauty to the display of the Terrace or Balcony. Kalanchoes are wonderful houseplants that are immediately recognizable for their colorful clusters of flowers. The succulents will start rooting after 2 to 3 weeks and will be ready to transplant into new containers. There are hundreds of plants in this genus, but not all are available in cultivation. I dont know why it is called "widows thrill" or "black widow". Growing flowering Kalanchoe plants is a rewarding experience. All kalanchoes have the same growing requirements. The seeds should be left to dry for some time before sowing. If you let the cuttings develop callous for some time, it will avoid the attack of diseases and insect pests and shortens the time required by the plant to become completely established. Kalanchoe Adans. … But then, every plant family has its 'colourful' relatives, right? It produces orange bell-shaped flowers on a 1 foot (30 cm) tall inflorescence.eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'kalanchoe_succulent_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_4',107,'0','0'])); Kalanchoe laxiflora blooms in the spring season by giving off beautiful orange-reddish flowers. However, a general rule is to repot all Kalanchoe succulents every 2 years, it will provide a fertile potting medium to the succulents with plenty of nutrients. Its medicinal properties have given it fame since it is believed it is a possible cure for cancer. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. It cannot survive freezing temperatures. If you want a hanging Kalanchoe variety, the K. porphyrocalyx is an ideal choice. You may know this fabulous flowering succulent plant as Christmas kalanchoe, florist kalanchoe, Madagascar widow’s thrill or flaming Katy. Once the plant has rooted, you can transplant it into its final pot. Excess of water causes rotting and decay of the roots; it also encourages fungal growth.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'kalanchoe_succulent_com-mobile-leaderboard-2','ezslot_17',113,'0','0'])); Can I use spray bottles to water Kalanchoe laxiflora? 2001; Kuligowska et al. They should be preferably sown in the spring season. Kalanchoe laxiflora commonly known as Milky Widow’s Thrill is a perennial subshrub succulent that belongs to family Crassulaceae. Also known as the miracle plant for its pharmacological activity, the plant has scalloped leaves with red margins. Even so, it’s a good idea to refresh the soil, so replant as needed. Kalanchoe 'Black Widow' Original:This is a slow growing succulent tree-like shrub which typically grows to about 1.5m tall with an equal spread. This plant comes from Madagascar, though it is already grown worldwide. Like most succulents, Kalanchoe is a relatively hands-off varietal, preferring plenty of sunlight and well-draining soil. These requirements change in the blooming or reblooming phase. Water slowly so that the water gets evenly distributed in the soil without pooling at the bottom of the container.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'kalanchoe_succulent_com-leader-2','ezslot_6',115,'0','0'])); All varieties of Kalanchoe succulents can generally take all levels of humidity. Even if your Kalanchoe has completed 2 years in the same pot and is growing healthy still it is recommended to transfer your Kalanchoe succulents into new containers. of the genus Kalanchoe native to Madagascar.It is known by the English common names flaming Katy, Christmas kalanchoe, florist kalanchoe and Madagascar widow's-thrill. If you are keeping pets at home, it is advised to keep the succulents away from cats and dogs because if they ingest any plant part it can lead to serious consequences. Flaming Katy is a famous house plant that can be found at your local farmer’s market under the labels Christmas Kalanchoe, Florist Kalanchoe or Madagascar Widow’s Thrill. Also, I found a particular species, K. beauverdii, commonly called “widow’s thrill,” which is a vining plant with dark purplish foliage and black-violet 1–2″ long trumpet-shaped flowers that hang in bunches at the ends of the stems. They contain essential minerals that are beneficial for your succulents. There are many more Kalanchoe varieties that you may find in the flower trade. Botanical Name: Kalanchoe pumila. These easy-care plants bloom freely for 2-6 months at a time! Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Richard A. Avoid feeding your succulents when they are in the dormant phase. It's also suited to a variety of … It is a drought smart plant that makes it a great choice for xeriscaping. I’ve created this website to help beginners care for their plants. Kalanchoe blossfeldiana care is a snap. It grows well in the Rocky Mountains and dry soils of Madagascar. It should be consumed two to three times a d… Avoid the use of a potting medium that is too clayey. As the coffee grounds easily break down in the soil, they will add nitrogen to the potting medium. Although I have had some success using ordinary potting soil mix, the best results I’ve noticed using a combination of 50% peat moss and 40% perlite. A well-draining potting soil prevents the water build-up and saves the root from rotting and decay. Kalanchoe Another succulent plant that can thrive indoors, the foolproof beauty of Kalanchoe (also called widow’s-thrill or kal-un-KOH-ee) has made them popular. It is a drought smart plant that makes it a great choice for xeriscaping. Can I propagate Kalanchoe laxiflora by using seeds? Where most will last for a week or so, these will last for multiple weeks. Mealybugs and aphids can be occasionally observed attacking the indoor succulents. They’re not a hardy plant, but they’re also not difficult to grow and are generally considered low maintenance. It has little #pups on it's leaf tips. I believe that the one you are seeing in this video is called the widow's thrill. If your succulents appear leggy or stretched out and start growing too tall, it indicates that your succulents are not getting enough sunlight exposure. Kalanchoe is also known as widow’s-thrill. Kalanchoe Plant Care . Same as other succulents like the cacti plant, it’s quite popular especially during holidays since it holds the ability to produce bright flowers that resemble roses. I got it as a 8" broken piece from the succulent society free table. About Kalanchoe Plants. If you observe any of the above-mentioned symptoms of poisoning take your pet immediately to an expert Veterinarian. – widow's-thrill Subordinate Taxa. Kalanchoe laxiflora is generally not prone to insect pests. Kalanchoe plants become short-day plants during the blooming season, needing quite a bit of darkness over light. How to control the pests of Kalanchoe laxiflora? It will ultimately stop the supply of water and nutrients to the plants resulting in several symptoms such as yellowing of leaves, wilting, and death of the succulent. You can make your Kalanchoe bloom again by manipulating lighting conditions. The watering needs vary with the seasonal temperatures. Family: CRASSULACEAE: Genus: Kalanchoe Adans. Kalanchoe plants that grow indoors should be watered when the top 3-4 inches of soil dries out. all Kalanchoe succulents are toxic to pet animals, Kalanchoe Delagoensis “Mother of millions”, Devil’s Backbone, Kalanchoe synsepala (Walking Kalanchoe) Care. Note: Overwatering is the most commonly occurring problem causing the death of the succulents. The plant does well in arid conditions, humidity is not a requirement and highly humid rooms will cause issues. The cuttings need more water until they establish in the soil. They are not only a rich source of potassium and phosphorus, but they also contain some other elements like calcium, sodium manganese, and sulfur. They must be kept out of the reach of toddlers because they can cause stomach upset. Kalanchoe laxiflora does not require frequent repotting. Nitrogen is a vital nutrient for Kalanchoe succulents because it is a major component of chlorophyll. However, the removal of spent blooms and dead leaves can encourage more blooming and healthier growth in the next growing season. The succulent has typical, Kalanchoe luciae is an evergreen, eye-catching dramatic succulent that belongs to the family Crassulaceae. It has thick stems that hold large, undulated and folded, olive-green, slightly-triangular leaves covered in soft brown hairs that gives the leaves a soft, velvety texture. Where widow’s always wore black, someone might have seen the appearance as being attractive to widows. It has been reported that even a few hours of exposure to below freezing temperatures is enough to kill the Kalanchoe succulents. Can I keep Kalanchoe laxiflora on the Terrace or Balcony? When the seedlings grow large enough to handle, they must be transplanted into new containers or garden beds. May 14, 2017 - Kalanchoe laxiflora (Milky Widow's Thrill) is a succulent subshrub up to 20 inches (50 cm) tall. Outdoor succulents can be planted in full bright sun to partial shade. Feed the succulents in the spring seasons and remove the spent blooms to encourage the bud development in the next season. I am still trying to figure out why the widow was so thrilled... LOL! Because they’re slow growing plants, Kalanchoes don’t need to be repotted often. The ASPCA website lists the Kalanchoe plant among the plants that are toxic to cats and dogs, so keep them out of reach if you have pets. Put the indoor Kalanchoe succulents near a bright sunny window for ample sunlight exposure. Remove the bottom leaves and allow plant the cutting in pre-moistened soil. The older leaves often display a red-violet color at the margins. The first step is to cut the amount of light the plant gets during the day. I earn a commission if you make a purchase through my referral links. When replanting, choose a pot that is 2 inches larger than the pot that’s currently housing the plant and choose a soil type that works best for these succulents. You can group different varieties together to create beautiful arrangements. It is recommended to fertilize your succulents during the active growing phase biweekly or monthly with a light dose of manufacturer’s recommended 20:8:20 cactus fertilizer or a succulent fertilizer mix. Kalanchoe laxiflora does not require a lot of care and can be easily grown. Kalanchoe blossfeldiana is a herbaceous and commonly cultivated house plant [unreliable source?] Kalanchoe laxiflora needs moderate irrigation in the autumn and spring seasons, while during summer they need to be irrigated more often. It’s known for its large flowerheads that come in a variety of colors including red, orange, pink, yellow, and white. Flowers : Flowers are bell shaped and grey/green in colour with a violet tinge. The blooming period lasts an astonishingly long time when compared to other houseplants. Kalanchoe plants thrive in high light conditions. Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (also called Christmas Kalanchoe, Florist Kalanchoe, Madagascar Widow’s-thrill or Flaming Katy). Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) iː /, or kal-un-KOH-ee, or kal-un-kee, also written Kalanchöe or Kalanchoë, is a genus of about 125 species of tropical, succulent flowering plants in the family Crassulaceae, mainly native to Madagascar and tropical Africa.Kalanchoe was one of the first plants to be sent into space, sent on a resupply to the Soviet Salyut 1 space station in 1971. When watering, add water only to the base of the plant to avoid getting water on the leaves, which promotes fungal diseases. Just give them plenty of light during the growing season and make sure they’re kept safe from frost, cold windows and cold drafts. Stop watering and fertilization for 6 weeks. Kalanchoe laxiflora is a subshrub that grows up to 20 inches tall. These succulents do not need a lot of nutrients so, avoid the overdose of fertilizers. With fleshy, rounded leaves and urn-shaped flowers, this distinctive Kalanchoe variety grows 12 inches tall and 12 inches wide. To prevent rotting of the stem or fungus to develop, before planting it, keep it in a dry location for a callus to form, and only then put it under a plastic cover. Oken; Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. How do I bring my Kalanchoe back to life? If you’re growing these plants outdoors, you’ll need to take them inside as soon as temperatures reach 45 F degrees. It has elliptical shaped grey-green leaves, often tinged with red hue along the leaf margins. Though these succulents can survive a period of drought but do not neglect them for a long time. Kalanchoe plants require well-drained soil and mild temperatures of at least 60 F. (16 C.). It produces large, pendant flowers that come in purple or pink. To make your kalanchoe rebloom requires a few extra steps, but the results are well worth it! You can control the infestation easily if you are lucky enough to spot the problem at an early stage. The more common Kalanchoe I know grows well indoors, given judicious watering and good drainage. Alternatively, you can use cactus mix soil to amend a heavy soil and improve aeration and drainage.