Changes sometimes have to be made to literature and music in order to produce a noble warrior. Glaucon reacts as if he has stepped out of the cave for the first time and does not know what to make of his bright surroundings. Not only does Socrates (Plato's mouthpiece in the dialogue) posit two differing visions of education (the first is the education of the warrior guardians and the second is the philosopher-kings' education), but he also provides a more subtle account of education through t… Socrates says, "Imitations, if they are practiced continually from youth onwards, become established as habits and nature, in body and sounds and in thought" (395d). The aim of education, according to Plato, is the welfare of both the individual and the society. Socrates' pedagogical approach with the interlocutors corresponds closely with his vision of the education of the philosopher-kings--an overlap which suggests that the allegory of the cave is representative of true Socratic education. The final part of education would be the physical training of the warrior. As soon as Socrates allows fineries, however, the city quickly becomes rife with potential trouble. Plato considered bravery to be one of the most important attributes a guardian should possess. In line with this, Socrates' creation and discussion of the city is a playful activity (536b). Socrates, recognizing that Glaucon is still attached to lavishness, goes along with his request to make the city more luxurious. Socrates' ludicrous examples, different images, and persistent questioning are clearly intended to help guide his pupils upward through the levels of reality to the highest, truest knowledge of what is. Books have been taken out of libraries and classrooms that contain explicit material and teach prejudice and evil. It was influential in the Roman Empire and was revived in European political thought in the age of absolutist monarchs. Socrates shows him that with the proper education, a life of noble virtue, including "moderation, courage, liberality, and magnificence" (402c) but excluding sex and excessive pleasure, will be fulfilling. Guardians would also be needed to maintain internal order between the citizens. Furthermore, gods cannot be said to punish (unless it is for the punished person's benefit), change shape/form, or lie. A progressive education that teaches men to use their existing capacity for knowledge is what Socrates intends for the philosopher-kings. Lastly in his discussion of educative music, Socrates addresses the appropriate melody of tales with Glaucon. If a God were perfect and good then he would not be affected by outside influences and would be able to maintain his perfection. Socrates never resolves the tension between the importance of nature and education for the development of philosopher-kings, which makes it difficult to understand which is most important. Although Plato's Republic is best known for its definitive defense of justice, it also includes an equally powerful defense of philosophical education. Socrates identifies this subject by describing it as the lowly business of distinguishing the one, the two, and the three—the number. Further, Socrates says it is better that the philosopher-kings rule unenthusiastically or else they will become greedy for power which leads to tyranny (520d). Like the divided line, the dialogue has different meanings and purposes on different levels, making it dangerous to believe everything Socrates says. Perhaps he emphasizes the importance of a certain nature to add an aura of prestige to education. If children only learn about what is good then they will be able to find the divine nature in themselves. Socrates now acknowledges that the nature necessary in philosopher-kings is rare. He determines that mimetic poetry is dangerous because it encourages people to imitate bad as well as good behavior and supports the violation of the one man-one job principle (395c). After all, shadows (or noble lies) capture part of the truth, whether it is physical or moral, and can be used to educate people about what lies beyond the cave, either outside the city's laws or in life after death. Tales cannot depict fighting among the gods and, further, children must actively be told that citizens have never been angry with one another (378c). The second part of education would be dramatic recitation. And thus always educating other like men and leaving them behind in their place as guardians of the city, they go off to the Isles of the Blessed and dwell (540a-b). The answer, Plato believed, was to rely upon the value of a good education. Learning to love fine things and hate ugly things as a child will help them appreciate reasonable speech and find pleasure in living moderately when grown (402a). We'll have an opportunity to consider his notions about higher education later, but his plan for the elementary education of guardians for the ideal state appears in Book III. Guardian. Socrates does not advocate a complicated gymnastic regimen; instead, he says that a good soul produces a good body, and that a healthy intellect ensures a healthy body (403d-e). But let us look at a feverish city, too" (372e). Moreover, Socratic education is not just meant to educate civic rulers--it is meant to educate men to be excellent rulers of themselves. Outside these ages, intercourse is to … He shows Glaucon what would happen if a prisoner was unchained and allowed to leave the cave and see reality. And, lifting up the brilliant beams of their souls, they must be compelled to look toward that which provides light for everything. Despite Socrates' use of "reverse psychology" to make Glaucon realize the truth on his own terms, Glaucon does not find the philosopher's life ideal, so Socrates switches tactics. Socrates was serious when he said that poetry has the power to touch the soul, which is why he ends his argument with Socratic poetry--the myth of Er. Plato felt that one was put into a social group by their own development of their rational intellects. Interestingly, Plato imitates undesirable individuals as well as good (an imitation that Socrates condemns); however, in keeping with Socratic poetry, the dialogue has an interminably good message and teaches men how to be virtuous philosophers both in life and beyond. But despite his adamancy that knowing is superior to opining, Socrates himself claims not to know the good, which allows him to explore it jointly with Glaucon. The Guardians will have to be both fierce and gentle. If a God is able to take on another form then it could only be for the worse. Instead of using irony, Socrates uses images to teach the interlocutors. I now feel that censorship is sometimes needed after reading Plato’s views on censorship. But unlike the compulsory nature of the earlier education, the philosopher-kings' education must be presented first as voluntary play. The heroes told in stories should be brave, unafraid of death, and are not dependent on others. Socrates says. The ability to know is always within man--never faltering, but useful only depending on whether it is focused on the truth (518e). 2 His scheme of education is a lifelong procedure. We'll have an opportunity to consider his notions about higher education later, but his plan for the elementary education of guardians for the ideal state appears in Book III. They need to be gentle when they are dealing with the citizens of the state. He says that these poets' tales include bad lies, which further unrealistic images of the gods and heroes (377e). Only modes that express traits a guardian should hold will be left uncensored. Socrates claims, "A young thing can't judge what is hidden sense and what is not; but what he takes into his opinions at that age has a tendency to become hard to eradicate and unchangeable" (378d).
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